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Under British rule, the city grew into a major urban centre and naval base. Although most of the original Portuguese, Dutch, and British population had been killed during genocides during the Golkonda period, under Moghul protection, large numbers of British and Anglo-American settlers arrived to replenish these losses. This new area saw a proliferation of English merchant and planter families who, allied with their wealthy Indian counterparts, jointly controlled Chennapatnam under the supervision of White Town. Subsequent to Ilam Tiraiyan, the region was ruled by the Chola Prince Ilam Killi. It was considered as a part of the empire of the King of Chandragiri, the period when the British arrived in 1639 A.D. Further; it was named as Chennapattanam by the British when they acquired it from Chennappa Nayaka, the leader of Vijayanagar. January 2021 0 0 Currently, the nomenclature of the area is in a state of controversy. In due course, the two towns Madraspattinam and Chennapattinam merged in the 17th century i.e. [11] The dispute arose as over the preceding hundred years, the early British, European workers and small cottage capitalists had been replaced in large part by both Tamil and Telugu speaking people. Under Hindu caste code, as well as English Common Law, it is unlikely that Fort St. George was built upon the village of Madraspatnam and its inhabitants incorporated into the new town. Similar to the versions of the origin of the name. The arrival of the railway in India during the 19th century helped the city to connect with other crucial cities like Mumbai and Kolkata which encouraged communication and trading in the surrounding area. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram. The British regained control in 1749 through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. The British fought with various European powers, notably the French at Vandavasi (Wandiwash) in 1760, where de Lally was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote, and the Danish at Tharangambadi (Tranquebar). Furthermore, it expanded the Company property by attaching an additional piece of land known as the Narimedu (or 'Jackal-ground') which lay to the west of the village of Madraspatnam. With an estimated population of 8.9 million (2014), the 400-year-old city is the 31st largest metropolitan area in the world. Bappaswami, who is considered as the ruler to rule from Kanchipuram, was himself a chieftain (of the tract around) at Kanchipuram under the Satavahana empire in the beginning of the 3rd century. The city has changed its boundaries as well as the geographic limits of its quarters several times, principally as a result of raids by surrounding Hindu and Muslim powers. Since its establishment as a city in 1639, English was the official language of the city. Srinivasanar was an extremist. Despite lacking their original numbers and control, the original British community remnants, along with other minorities as well as the long history of British culture, keeps Madras a slightly cosmopolitan city. Home Rule Movement in Tamil Nadu The Home rule Movement in Madras was organized by Mrs. Annie Besant between 1916 and 1918.The first indication of Annie Besant’s decision to launch a Home Rule Movement appeared in New India in September 1915. Dhanu is widely believed to have been an LTTE member. As more and more Indians arrived from the countryside to work in the city, the British and other Europeans found it increasingly difficult to establish or maintain independent wealth as they had during the early East Indian regime. The present-day city of Chennai started in 1644 as an English settlement known as Fort St. George. Sivaraja Pillai, Sri.S. Most of these were recruited as cheap labor from the relatively poor Telugu nationality, which in turn enraged the Tamil nationals who were originally the working and middle class settlers of Madras in the late 18th century. It was named after the Christian leader of reforms, St. Thomas who preached in the area between 52 and 70 A.D. Ellāḷaṉ statue in the premises of Madras High Court. Thiruvotriyur is a historically important port city, now forms part of north Chennai. Similar to the versions of the origin of the name Madras, there are various such versions related to the origin of the name Chennai as well. The development of a harbour in Madras led the city to become an important centre for trade between India and Europe in the 18th century. This together with the written records makes it clear that the Fort which became the centre of present Chennai, was built upon or nearby the village of Madraspatnam. This new grant laid the foundation for the expansion of Madras into its present form. (ii) Tamil nationalist periodical Swadesamitran was started in 1891. Tondaimandalam was ruled in the 2nd century CE by Tondaiman Ilam Tiraiyan, who was a representative of the Chola family at Kanchipuram. former Indian state (modern Chennai, a Tamil name), the name sometimes is said to be from Sanskrit Mandra, a name of a god of the underworld, but it is perhaps rather from Arabic madrasa "school" (see madrasah) or Portuguese Madre (de Deus).The British fort there dates from 1639. Always a tiny minority in comparison with the vast Indian population of the hinterlands, despite slow growth in natural birthrate and continued settlement, the British and European populations were made an ever-decreasing share of their city's populations. The grant signed between Damarla Venkatadri and the English had to be authenticated or confirmed by the Raja of Chandragiri - Venkatapathy Rayulu. Nonetheless, the Fort and its surrounding walls remained under British control who slowly rebuilt their colony with additional colonists despite another mass murder of Europeans in Black Town by anti-colonialists agitated by Golkonda and plague in the 1670s. HISTORY . Additionally, the pre-city area of Chennai has a long history within the records of South Indian Empires. The crew of a merchant ship also destroyed by the Germans that night. The next year, flush with funds won from the original British owners who had capitalized the bank, he organized a group of Chettiar merchants to found Indian Bank, with which he funded new Indian enterprises and broke into the previously closed ranks of the British financial system. the period when the British gained possession of the area. On this piece of wasteland was founded Fort St. George, a fortified settlement of British merchants, factory workers, and other colonial settlers. For instance, Golkonda forces under General Mir Jumla conquered Madras in 1646, massacred or sold into slavery many of the Christian European inhabitants and their allied Indian communities, and brought Madras and its immediate surroundings under his control. However, there are city records of their existence long afterward, and it has been suggested that the present government may still hold them. Collectively, the original Fort St. George settlement, "White Town", and "Black Town" were called Madras. In 1927, a separate Tamil Department was established in the Institute. ORIGIN OF ISC* By Prof. (Dr.) K. Chockalingam** Founder Secretary, ISC . • Madras was the first major British settlement in India, and until 1774 was the capital of the entire British Empire in the east, which stretched from India to Indonesia. They appointed chieftains to look after the Kanchipuram region. However, other national groups, chiefly FrenchPortuguese, and other Catholic merchants had separate agreements with the Nayak which allowed them in turn to establish trading posts, factories, and warehouses. The British also fought four wars with the Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali and later his son Tipu Sultan, which led to their eventual domination of India's south. Consequently, once the area separating Chennapatnam and Old Madras was built over uniting the two settlements, as founders, settlers, and authorities of area, the English named the new united city Madras. During the reorganisation of states in India on linguistic lines, in 1953, Telugu speakers wanted Madras as the capital of Andhra Pradesh[10] and coined the slogan "Madras Manade" (Madras is ours). As a result, over time, the area came to be known as 'White Town'. SUBRAMANIA SIVA V.O. The History of Tamil Nadu … (i) Madras Native Association was founded in 1852. The original building which housed Spencer & Co. was burnt down in a fire in 1983 and the present structure houses one of the largest shopping malls in India, Spencer Plaza. However, it is widely recorded that while the official center of the present settlement was designated Fort St. George, the British applied the name Madras to a new large city which had grown up around the Fort including the "White Town" consisting principally of British settlers, and "Black Town" consisting of principally Catholic Europeans and allied Indian minorities. Today, Chennai also has a growing expatriate population especially from the United States, Europe and East Asia who work in the industries and IT centres. The Pallavas held sway over this region from the beginning of the 3rd century to the closing years of the 9th century, except for the interval of some decades when the region was under the Kalabhras. Tamil Nadu Elevation – 6m (20ft)Coordinates:13.08389°N 80.27000°E Connectivity Map After India's Independence, the state of Madras came into existence and 1968, the name was changed to Tamil Nadu. Tanjore Big Temple Mysteries - Secret of Cholas - … By the end of 1783, the great 18th century wars which saw the British and French battle from Europe to North America and from the Mediterranean to India, resulted in the British being in complete control of the city's regional and most of South India area. This new grant is important regarding the legal and civic development of the English settlement. Following the Treaty of Madras which brought that war to an end, the external threats to Madras significantly decreased. In 1930, the Tamil Department was further expanded. iStock University Of Madras In Chennai Tamil Nadu India Stock Photo - Download Image Now Download this University Of Madras In Chennai Tamil Nadu India photo now. The 1783 version of Fort St George is what still stands today. Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency, also called Madras Province. The DMK renamed Madras to Chennai as DMK founder Anna renamed Madras State as Tamil Nadu. As a result, the Hindus and Muslims cooperated closely during the movement in Tamil Nadu. The Original Name of Madras Is Puliyur kottam which is 2000 year old Tamil ancient name. Madras was called as Madras Province which comprised earlier the south Indian states of Tamilnadu, Kerala, Andra Pradesh, and Karnataka. As a result, during the Governorship of Elihu Yale (1687–92), the large number of British and European settlers led to the most important political event which was the formation of the institution of a Mayor and the Corporation for the city of Madras. In the Tamil language, the … 1st century CE was ruled under the Cholas. Rajaji worked closely with Yakub Hasan, the founder of the Madras branch of the Muslim League. In 1674, the expanded colony had nearly 50,000 mostly British and European colonists and was granted its own corporate charter, thereby officially establishing the modern day city. As stipulated by the Treaty signed with the Nayak, the British and other Christian Europeans were not allowed to decorate the outside of their buildings in any other color but white. Their small fortified settlement quickly attracted other East Indian traders and as the Dutch position collapsed under hostile Indian power they also slowly joined the settlement. Therefore, because of the fort's proximity or origin to the village of Mandraspatnam, and the fort's centrality to the development of the city, the British settlers of the city later named their settlement Madras in honour of it. After Indian independence in 1947, the Madras Presidency became Madras state. Earlier, Panagal Raja, Chief Minister of Madras Presidency in the early 1920s had suggested that the Cooum River be the boundary between the Tamil and Telugu administrative areas. Mylapore was a major port of the Pallava. (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India) Formerly known as Madras, the modern city of Chennai has a long history as a settled area, beginning more than 1,000 years ago. Tamil Nadu Information - History Of Tamil Nadu. Canadian Administrative Law Blog. Bibliography on Tamil History, Ethnicity, Culture, Srilankan Tamils and Tamilnadu Politics, posted by Tamil Electronic Library ... Madras Presidency, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1928 pp.158-159 (data of 1926-1928); India and Dependencies : Madras States, ibid. The Pallava, the Chola, the Pandya, and Vijaynagar the noticeable dynasties ruled over Chennai. Over time and administrative reforms, the area was finally fully incorporated into the new metropolitan charter of Madras. As the East India Company controlled the trade in the area, these non-British merchants established agreements with the Company for settling on Company land near "White Town" per agreements with the Nayak. The Raja, Venkatapathy Rayulu, was succeeded by his nephew Sri Rangarayulu in 1642, and Sir Francis Day was succeeded by Thomas Ivy. Part of the fortune that he amassed in Madras as part of the colonial administration became the financial foundation for Yale University. The crisis also imperiled Parry & Co and Binny & Co, but both found rescuers. A popular explanation is that the name comes from the name of Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, Nayaka of Chandragiri and Vandavasi, father of Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, from whom the English acquired the town in 1639. In 1969 Madras state was renamed as the state of Tamil Nadu. Karuthiraman said, “Madras is a name in world history; Tamil Nadu will take time to reach the same heights”. Alternative Titles: Ceṉṉai, Madras, Madraspatnam Chennai, formerly Madras, city, capital of Tamil Nadu state, southern India, on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. Several times throughout the life of the colony, the Fort became the last refuge of Europeans and their allied Indian communities due to raids by several Indian rulers and powers, which resulted in the almost total destruction of the town. Other prominent companies in the city included Gordon Woodroffe, Best & Crompton, Higginbotham's, Hoe & Co and P. Orr & Sons. It in honor of the later village upon which the British named the entire colony and the combined city Madras. The Cholas who were very active during the Sangam age were entirely absent during the first few centuries. CC BY-SA 2.0. According to the treaty, only Europeans, principally Protestant British settlers were allowed to live in this area as outside of this confine, non-Indians were not allowed to own property. In the early 17th century Beri Thimmappa of the Puragiri Kshatriya (Perike) caste migrated to the locality from Palacole, near Machilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh. However, by the early 20th century they had become a small minority in their own city. Madras Tamil 232,814 views. The Grant was for a period of two years and empowered the Company to build a fort and castle on about five square kilometers of its strip of land.[7]. The calico cloth from the local area, which was in high demand, was of poor quality and not suitable for export to Europe. Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency and thus became home to important commercial organisations. Madras in South India was a port town ideally situated on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal. He was the local governor for the last Raja of Chandragiri, Sri Ranga Raya VI of Vijayanagar Empire. The Pallavas were defeated by the Cholas under Aditya I by about 879 and the region was brought under the Chola rule. Along with Tamil Nadu, the other northern modern-day states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka were conquered by the British in the late 18th century. After India gained independence in 1947, Chennai became the capital of Madras State. This place was supposedly named so by Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, Nayak of Vandavasi in remembrance of his father Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu. According to the new party history, instead of being named Madras, it was named Chennai, after a village called Chennapattanam, in honour of Damarla Chennapa Nayakudu, father of Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu, who controlled the entire coastal country from Pulicat in the north to the Portuguese settlement of Santhome.[4][5]. Breaking with the tradition of the closed and almost wholly British controlled system of the English East India Company, The Madras Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1836 by Fredrick Adam, Governor of the Madras Presidency (the second oldest Chamber of Commerce in the country). In the 17th century, the English East India Company decided to build a factory on the east coast and in 1626 selected its site as Armagon (Dugarazpatnam), a village some 35 miles north of Pulicat. The Chola occupation of Tondaimandalam was put to an end by the Andhra Satavahana incursions from the north under their King Pulumayi II. After India became independent in 1947, the city became the administrative and legislative capital of Madras State which was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1968. Population of Telugu's and Tamils were more or less the same in those days, however dynamics of Madras city was changed post independence rapidly. Chennai is the automobile capital of India, with around forty percent of the automobile industry having a base there and with a major portion of the nation's vehicles being produced there. Madras war ein Zentrum der ab dem frühen 20. Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, the local governor of the Vijayanagar Empire and Nayaka of Wandiwash (Vandavasi), ruled the coastal part of the region, from Pulicat to the Portuguese settlement of San Thome. Thiruvanmiyur, Thiruvotriyur, and Thirumayilai are mentioned in the Thevarams of the Moovar (of the Nayanmars) while Thiruvallikeni in the Nalayira Divya Prabhandhams (of the Alwars). Eventually, after additional provocations from Golkonda, the British pushed back until they defeated him. Millions of people starved to death throughout British ruled Tamil Nadu, around 3.9 million people perished in Chennai alone within two years of 1877–78.[9]. In 1746, Fort St George and Madras were captured at last. The lawyer V. Krishnaswamy Iyer made a name for himself representing claimants, mostly wealthy Hindus and Muslims who had lent money on the failed bank. 19. Another small town, Chennapatnam, lay to the south of it. In 1996, keeping with the recent nationwide practice of Indianizing city names, the Government of Tamil Nadu, then represented by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, renamed the city to Chennai. The region was often called by different names as madrapupatnam, madras kuppam, madraspatnam, and madirazpatnam as adopted by locals. Vaiyapuri Pillai, Sri.R.P. As the city is an important administrative and commercial centre, many others such as Bengalis, Punjabis, Gujaratis and Marwaris, as well as people from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar migrated to the city and have contributed to its cosmopolitan nature. The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company. And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features Architecture photos available for quick and easy download. Madraspatnam seemed favorable during the inspection, and the calicoes woven there were much cheaper than those at Armagon (Durgarazpatam). The Department of comparative Philology, Oriental Research Institute, University of Madras first began its researches in Tamil in 1914. Speaking on the debate, Opposition Leader P.G. This site is owned and managed by WN Network. In 2004, An 'Indian Ocean Tsunami' altered the coastline of Chennai permanently, killing many and leaving thousands of hundreds homeless. Although the British had lost most of their well-populated, industrious, and wealthy North American colonies, after a decade's feud with the French, they were securely in control of Madras and most of the Indian trade. He was also an influential Nayak ruler under the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya then based in Chandragiri-Vellore Fort, was in-charge of the area of present Chennai city when the English East India Company arrived to establish a factory in the area.[2][3]. The modern city of "Chennai" arose from the British settlement of Fort St. George and its subsequent expansion through merging numerous native villages and European settlements around Fort St. George into the city of Madras. Chennai boasts of a long history from the English East India Company, through the British rule to its evolution in the late 20th century as a services and manufacturing hub for India. They began construction of the Fort St George on 23 April 1640 and houses for their residence. Because of its importance to the East India Company, the French plundered and destroyed the village of Chepauk and Blacktown, the locality across from the port where all the dockyard labourers used to live.[8]. Thereafter in a nod to the declining fortunes of the British textile owners and skilled workers who were still extant in the city, the Madras Trades Association was established in 1856, by which the old colonial families still involved in the skilled and textile trades were granted entry into the British and Indian financial trade system. Further militating against the name "Chennai", Chennapatnam was the name in later years of an area explicitly detailed as having been incorporated of native villages, European plantations, and European merchant houses outside of the combined city of Madras consisting of Fort St. George, and White and Black Town. Tamil Nadu has a very ancient history that dates back to some 6000 years and the origin of its people is closely tied to the debates of the Aryan invasion theory. Overview. To further consolidate their position, the Company combined the various settlements around an expanded Fort St. George, which including its citadel also included a larger outside area surrounded by an additional wall. Dieser wurde 1956 durch den States Reorganisation Act nach den Sprachgrenzen des Tamil neu formiert und 1969 in Tamil Nadu umbenannt. Madras witnessed further political violence due to the civil war in Sri Lanka, with 33 people killed by a bomb planted by the Tamil Eelam Army at the airport in 1984, and assassination of thirteen members of the EPRLF and two Indian civilians by the rival LTTE in 1991. He had his headquarters at Wandiwash, and his brother Ayyappa Nayakudu resided at Poonamallee, a few miles to the west of Madras, where he looked after the affairs of the coast. Francis Day wrote to his headquarters at Masulipatam for permission to inspect the proposed site at Madraspatnam and to examine the possibilities of trade there. Over time, Indians also arrived in ever greater numbers and soon, the Portuguese and other non-Protestant Christian Europeans were outnumbered. Beri Thimmappa, Francis Day's dubash (interpreter), was a close friend of Damarla Ayyappa Nayakudu. Although, Madraspatnam is named in later records following the establishment of Fort St. George, this is likely because of the discriminatory nature of the local caste system. Chennai has also become a major centre for outsourced IT and financial services from the Western world. 1st century CE was ruled under the Cholas. The Vijayanagar rulers who controlled the area, appointed chieftains known as Nayaks who ruled over the different regions of the province almost independently. The Original Name of Madras Is Puliyur kottam which is 2000 year old Tamil ancient name. Photo credit: Flickr/Balu Velachery/ In the same year, former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur, a small town close to Chennai, whilst campaigning in Tamil Nadu, by Thenmuli Rajaratnam A.K.A. Madras to Chennai | 1900 - 2018 | Road to Chennai | Exclusive Transformation of Chennai - Duration: 3:27. Following the British victory in the Seven Years' War they eventually dominated, driving the French, the Dutch and the Danes away entirely, and reducing the French dominions in India to four tiny coastal enclaves. During World War I, Madras (Chennai) was shelled by the German light cruiser SMS Emden, resulting in 5 civilian deaths and 26 wounded. The English soon realized that the port Armagon was unsuitable for trade purposes. [13], Various etymologies have been posited for the name, Chennai or Chennapattanam. Related: Madrasi. On 20 August 1639, Francis Day of the East India Company along with Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu traveled to Chandragiri palace to meet the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya and to obtain a grant for a small strip of land in the Coromandel Coast from in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities. John Binny came to Madras in 1797 and he established the textile company Binny & Co in 1814. Tamil Nadu was very active during the Non-cooperation Movement under the leadership of C Rajagopalachari and E V Ramaswamy. Owing to the city's rich musical and cultural traditions, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has included Chennai in its Creative Cities Network. This period witnessed remarkable development of trade and increase in wealth resulting in the building of many fine houses, mansions, housing developments, an expanded port and city complete with new city walls, and various churches and schools for the British colonists and missionary schools for the local Indian population. The Pallavas who had so far been merely viceroys, then became independent rulers of Kanchipuram and its surrounding areas. Today, they are the … This area became the Fort St. George settlement. They reached Madraspatnam on 20 February 1640; and this date is important because it marks the first actual settlement of the English at the place. mixed Anglo Indian descendants of the original English settlers, a smaller but still extant British and European community, as well as migrant Malayalee communities in the city. Each time the town and later city was rebuilt and repopulated with new English and European settlers. Therefore, from 1965 to 1967, the city saw agitations against this two language (Hindi and local language) policy, and witnessed sporadic rioting. The city as we know it today started as an English settlement in … Chennai, originally known as "Madras", was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Penna River of Nellore and the Ponnaiyar river of Cuddalore. When this was accomplished with the Independence of India in 1947, they were quickly brushed aside by the Indian population. Lastly, while the Fort St. George, White Town, and Black Town areas were fully incorporated together by the late 18th century, and was known as Madras, Chennapatnam was its own separate entity existing under the authority of Fort St. George well into the 19th century. In 1906, the city experienced a financial crisis with the failure of its leading merchant bank, Arbuthnot & Co. Anavaratanayakam Pillai, Sri.S. All three grants are said to have been engraved on gold plates which were later reported to have been plundered, disappearing during one of the genocides of the English colony. The history of Tamil Nadu goes back to the early stone age. These magnum opuses looked at 100 years of the Tamil novel (1977) and the history and development of the Tamil short story (1989). On July 18, 1967, Chief Minister Anna prepared a resolution to change the name of Madras State to Tamil Nadu in English and Tamil languages. The next year British built the Fort St. George which then became a core part of the growing colonial city. May 21, 2019 - 525 Likes, 7 Comments - Brown History (@brownhistory) on Instagram: “Portrait of a seated girl wearing Jewellery, from Madras in Tamil Nadu - 1872” Following several outbreaks of violence by various Hindu and Muslim Indian communities against the Christian Europeans, White Town's defenses and its territorial charter was expanded to incorporate most of the area which had grown up around its walls thereby incorporating most of its Catholic European settlements. Upon this settlement, the English expanded their colony to include a number of other European communities, new British settlements, and various native villages, one of which was named Mudhirasa pattanam. The demands for the immediate creation of a Telugu-speaking state were met with after Tirupati was included in Andhra State and after the leaders who led the movement were convinced to give up their claim on Madras. While most of the original city of Madras was built and settled by Europeans, the surrounding area which was later incorporated included the native temples of Thiruvanmiyur, Thiruvotriyur, Thiruvallikeni (Triplicane), and Thirumayilai (Mylapore) which have existed for more than 2000 years. Consequently, they expanded the Chartered control of the company by encompassing the neighbouring villages of Triplicane, Egmore, Purasawalkam and Chetput to form the city of Chennapatnam, as it was called by locals then. Chennai (Madras) History Occupied by the British for 300 years, Chennai emerged as an energetic metropolis that’s fiercely proud of its Tamil heritage. The present parts of Chennai like Poonamalee (ancient Tamil name - Poo Iruntha valli), Triplicane (ancient Tamil name - Thiru alli keni) are mentioned in Tamil bhakti literature of the 6th - 9th centuries.Thomas Pitt became the Governor of Madras in 1698 and governed for eleven years.

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